System of government

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Anglický jazyk


Czech republic[editovat]

The voting system in Czech Republic is based on generality, confidentiality and equality of votes. The citizens elect a legislature at a national level. The 200 members of the Chamber of Deputies are elected for a four-year term by proportional representation with a 5% election threshold for political parties. The Senate has 81 members in single-member districts, which are elected by two round runoff voting (if no candidate receives more than 50% of the votes, the second round of voting is held with just two most successful candidates). The President of the Czech Republic was indirectly elected for five-year terms until 2012, from 2013 election, the president is elected by direct two-round runoff voting (same system as in the senate election). The regional and municipal elections are held every four years in autumn. Only people who are at least 18 years old are eligible to vote. Czech republic is one of the few countries where elections last for two days.

United Kingdom[editovat]

There are six types of elections in the United Kingdom: elections to the House of Commons, elections to devolved parliaments and assemblies, elections to the European Parliament, local elections, mayoral elections and Police and Crime Commissioner elections. The members of the House of Commons are elected after the dissolution of the Parliament using the single member plurality system (winner-takes-all). The Elections last one day and are traditionally held on Thursday (on Friday and weekends, part of citizens was expected to be drunk; the elections are as far from a Sunday as possible in order to reduce the influence of Sunday sermons). The voting age is 18 for most of the elections, however, the voting age for the Scottish Parliament elections and Scottish local government has been reduced to 16 years.

United States[editovat]

Elections in the United States are held for government officials at the federal, state, and local levels. The president is elected indirectly by the people of each state, through an Electoral College. Today, the electors almost always vote with the popular vote of their state. All members of the federal legislature, the Congress, are directly elected by people of each state. Most of the aspects of elections in the U.S. are regulated by state law, not federal. Voting age is regulated by the Twenty-sixth Amendment of the U.S. constitution, which prohibits federal and state laws which set a minimum voting age higher than 18 years.

Political parties[editovat]

Czech republic[editovat]

Parties are ordered by number of seats in the Chamber of Deputies:

  • ANO 2011 – centrist populist political party founded by Andrej Babiš. It holds 78 seats in the Chamber of Deputies. Its leader Andrej Babiš is the current Prime Minister, although his cabinet did not pass a vote of confidence.
  • Civic Democratic Party – liberal-conservative right wing political party, currently led by Petr Fiala. It holds 25 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and is the second strongest party following the 2017 election.
  • Czech Pirate Party – third larges party following the 2017 election, which has 22 deputies in the Chamber of Deputies. The party focuses on transparency, e-government, supporting small business, local development and civil liberties.
  • Freedom and Direct Democracy – Eurosceptic, anti-immigration and pro-direct democracy political party led by Tomio Okamura.
  • Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia
  • Czech Social Democratic Party – centre-left political party
  • Christian and Democratic Union – Czechoslovak People's Party
  • TOP 09 – liberal-conservative political party
  • Mayors and Independents – liberal-conservative political party focused on localism

United Kingdom[editovat]

Parties are ordered by overall representation in the House of Commons:

  • Conservative and Unionist Party – centre-right political party in the United Kingdom. It has been the governing party since the 2010 election, where a coalition government with the Liberal democrats was formed. The party leader is the Theresa May.
  • Labour Party – centre-left political party in the UK. The party emphasizes greater state intervention, social justice and strengthening worker's rights. It is led by Jeremy Corbyn.
  • Scottish National Party – Scottish nationalist and social-democratic political party in Scotland. The party supports and campaigns for Scottish independence. It is the third-largest political party by overall representation in the House of Commons.
  • Liberal Democrats – liberal political party

United States[editovat]

Political parties in the United States are mostly dominated by a two-party system. Only two seats in the Congress are held by Independent candidates.

  • Republic Party – the Republican Party originally focused on classical liberal ideas, including anti-slavery and economic reforms. Currently, their ideology is American conservatism. Its political platform supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights deregulation and restrictions on labor unions. The party has majority both in the House of Commons and the Senate. The current President of the United States also a Republican.
  • Democratic Party – second of the two major political parties. Its political platform supports labor unions, affordable college tuitions, universal health care, environmental protection, consumer protection and equal opportunities.

The prime minister, the president, the sovereign – their roles in the government[editovat]

Prime minister[editovat]

  • Czech Republic – the Chairman of the Government of the Czech Republic – the head of the Government of the Czech Republic. The President appoints the Prime Minister who appoints other Ministers of the cabinet. The Cabinet is collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Chamber of Deputies. The Prime Minister is the most powerful office in the Czech republic, since they command and preside over the Government.
  • United Kingdom – the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom. The Monarch appoints the Prime Minister who subsequently appoints Ministers of the cabinet. The Cabinet is collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Monarch and to Parliament.
  • United States – none


  • Czech Republic – the President of the Czech Republic is the elected formal head of state of the Czech Republic and the commander-in-chief of the Military of the Czech Republic. He can veto legislative bills before they became law (however, the veto may be overridden by the parliament). President also appoints Prime Minister, judges to the Supreme and constitutional Courts (with the permission of the Senate), members of the Bank board of the Czech National Bank.
  • United Kingdom – none
  • United States – the President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The presidents directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. He has right to veto legislative bills before they become law (however, the veto may be overridden by Congress), appoints members of the Cabinet and other offices.


  • Czech Republic – none
  • United Kingdom – the monarch undertake various official, ceremonial, diplomatic and representational duties. As the monarchy is constitutional, the monarch is limited to non-partisan (nestranné) functions such as appointing the Prime Minister. The monarch is commander-in-chief of the British armed Forces.
  • United States – none

Houses of Parliament, Congress, Senate, etc.[editovat]

Czech Republic[editovat]

The Parliament of the Czech Republic is the legislative body of the Czech Republic. It consists of two chambers, both elected in direct elections – the Lower House (Chamber of Deputies) and the Upper House (Senate)

  • Chamber of Deputies – Chamber of Deputies passes the bills, approves the cabinet and the international treaties. It can change constitutional law and override Senate or President veto. It has 200 members, elected for four years.
  • Senate – the Senate can delay a proposed law which was approved by the Chamber of Deputies but this veto can be overridden by an absolute majority of the Chamber of Deputies in a repeated vote. However, the senate cannot be overridden when it votes on constitutional law and on international treaties. senate decides on confirmation of judges of the Constitutional Court, proposed by the President. The Senate has 81 members, elected for six years.

United Kingdom[editovat]

The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories. The parliament consists of the upper house (the House of Lords) and a lower house (the House of Commons). Bills may be introduced in either house, though bills of importance generally originate in the House of Commons

  • House of Commons – elected body consisting of 650 members known as Members of Parliament (or MPs). House of commons has a supreme legislative power, since it can approve some types of bills without the consent of the House of Lords.
  • House of Lords – is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Unlike the elected House of Commons, vast majority of the House of Lords members is appointed. The number of members in the House of Lords is not fixed. There are currently 782 sitting Lords. House of Lords may delay some types of the public bills for up to two parliamentary sessions or one calendar year.

United States[editovat]

United States Congress is the legislative body of the Federal government of the United States consisting of two chambers: the Senate and the House of Representatives. It meets in the United States capitol in Washington, D.C. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election.

  • House of Representatives – passes federal legislation, known as bills, which, after approval of the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration. The House of commons also initiates all bills related to revenue and has right to impeach the federal officers, which are then tried before the Senate.
  • Senate – passes federal legislation, ratifies treaties, confirms Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court judges, federal judges and other officials. It has the responsibility of conducting trials of those impeached by th House of Representatives. The Senate has 100 members, elected for six years.

The present situation[editovat]

Czech Republic[editovat]

  • President: Miloš Zeman
  • Prime minister: Andrej Babiš
  • Chamber of Deputies parties: (ordered by number of seats): ANO, ODS, Czech Pirate Party, SPD, KSČM, ČSSD, KDU-ČSL, TOP 09, STAN

United Kingdom[editovat]

  • Queen: Elizabeth II
  • Prime minister: Theresa May
  • Major House of Commons parties: (ordered by number of seats): Conservative Party, Labour Party, Scottish National Party, Liberal Democrats, Democratic Unionist Party

United States[editovat]

  • President: Donald Trump (Republican)
  • The Republican Party has majority both in the House of Commons and the Senate.