Canada, Australia

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The Commonwealth of Nations[editovat]

The Commonwealth of Nations also known as simply the Commonwealth is an intergovernmental organization of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire. It was officially founded in 1931 by the Statue of Westminster with 6 member states – Australia, Canada, Irish Free State, Newfoundland, New Zealand and South Africa. Many countries have joined the organization since then and currently have a combined population of 2.3 billion people, almost a third of the world population. The Commonwealth's main objectives are preservation of word peace; promotion of representative democracy and individual liberty; the pursuit of equality and opposition to racism; the fight against poverty, ignorance, and disease; free trade; opposition to discrimination on the basis of gender and environmental sustainability. Canada and Australia are one of the 16 Commonwealth realms, which recognize Queen Elizabeth II as their head of state and reigning constitutional monarch. The Queen is represented by the governor-general appointed by her authority on the advice ofprime minister of the given country. Governor-general then performs duties historically carried out by the monarch. For instance, he summons and dissolves the parliament and has right to grant Royal Assent in the Queen's name (which makes the bill law) or withhold Royal Assent (which vetoes the bill). Nowadays, role of the governor-general is almost purely ceremonial.


Location, geography, industry[editovat]

Canada is located in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean. It is the world's second-largest country by total area and the world's fourth-largest nation by total land area. It shares international borders with the contiguous United States to the south, and the US state of Alaska to the northwest. The physical geography of Canada is widely varied. Most of the country is covered by taiga, although large areas of the northerly Arctic regions and the Rocky Mountains are covered with ice. The Great Lakes located on the southeast feed the St. Lawrence River which is part of the international boundary between Canada and United States.

Canada is the world's tenth largest economy. Like many other developed countries, Canadian economy is dominated by the service industry, which employs about three-quarters of the country's workforce. However, Canada is unusual among developed countries in the importance of its primary sector, which is dominated by forestry and petroleum industries. Canada is also a major exporter of energy, zinc, uranium, gold, nickel, aluminum, steel, iron ore, coking coal and lead. Canada has a developed manufacturing sector largely represented by automobiles and aeronautics.

Typical animals, agriculture, industries[editovat]

Some of the iconic species of Canada's fauna:

  • Brown bear – one of the largest carnivorans rivaled in size only by its closest relative, the polar bear which is much less variable in size and slightly larger on average
  • North American beaver – an official animal symbol of Canada. Beavers are well known for building dams across streams and constructing their lodges in the artificial ponds which form. The purpose of the dam is to create deepwater areas enabling the beaver to escape from predators.
  • Canada lynx – a species of lynx which lives in the taiga. It is about the size of a domestic cat, and commonly feeds on hares, mice, ground squirrels, lemmings and young deers.
  • Moose – the largest living species in the deer family. Moose are distinguished by the broad, flat antlers of the males.

Canada is one of the largest agricultural producers and exporters in the world. The main agricultural products include wheat, oats, barley, soybeans, rice, corn, beef cattle, hogs, veal, lamb, dairy, poultry and eggs.

Currency, political system[editovat]

The currency of Canada is Canadian dollar which is worth approximately 17 Czech crowns. It is divided into 100 cents. Canada's dollar is the fifth most held reserve currency in the world, behind the U.S. dollar, the euro, the yen and the pound sterling. Canada's central bank is the Bank of Canada, which is responsible for issuing Canadian banknotes and mintage of coins.

Canada is a federal parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state. The country has a multi-party political system, which is derived from the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy. Head of government is the Prime Minister, who is appointed by the Governor General of Canada. The Prime minister then chooses other ministers of the government, which are also appointed by the Governor General. The Parliament of Canada consists of an upper house (the Senate) and a lower house (the House of Commons).

Inhabitants, capitals and important cities[editovat]

Canada is sparsely populated since majority of its land territory is dominated by forest and tundra and the Rocky Mountains. It is highly urbanized, with 82 percent of the population concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. The total population of Canada is approximately 35 million.

The capital city of Canada is Ottawa. It is located on the south bank of the Ottawa River near the Great Lakes. It has population of about 950.000 people which makes it the fourth-largest city in Canada. It is the seat of the Parliament as well as other government institutions.

Some of the most important cities are:

  • Toronto – largest city in Canada with 2,7 million residents and the capital of the Canadian province of Ontario. It is located on the northern shore of Lake Ontario.
  • Montreal – the second-most populous city in Canada. It is located on the Island of Montreal, which lies at the confluence of the Saint Lawrence and Ottawa rivers.
  • Calgary – Canada's third-largest city. In 1988, it became the first Canadian city to host the Winter Olympic Games. It is famous for its walkway system of pedestrian bridges connecting office towers, retail centers and many parking lots within a 50-block area. It is mainly used during the winter when air temperatures can drop below 30°C.
  • Vancouver – major seaport located in the southwestern part of Canada. It was the host city for the 2010 Winter Olympics.


The official languages of the country are English and French. English is the mother tongue of approximately 56% of the population while French is the native language of around 21% of Canadians. Some of the most common non-official first languages include Chinese, Punjabi, Spanish and Tagalog.


Location, geography, industry[editovat]

Australia comprises the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. Australia is surrounded by the Indian and Pacific oceans. The Great Barrier Reef, the world's largest coral reef, lies a short distance off the north-east coast and extends for over 2000 kilometers. There s a variety of landscapes in Australia including the tropical rainforests in the north-east, mountain ranges in the south-east, south-west and east and dry desert in the centre.

Australia has the world's 13th-largest economy. It generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications, banking and manufacturing. It is known for its production of wool, and as the world's largest producer of bauxite.

Typical animals, agriculture, industries[editovat]

Some of the most known animals living in Australia:

  • Red kangaroo – the largest of all kangaroos and the largest mammal native to Australia. It lives in the arid open areas of Australia, which cover much of the country.
  • Platypus – an egg-laying mammal endemic to eastern Australia. It is one of the five species of animals that lay eggs instead of giving birth to live young.
  • Short-beaked echidna – an egg-laying mammal and one of four living species of echidna. It is covered in fur and spines and has a specialized tongue, which it uses to catch insects.
  • Koala – a herbivorous marsupial native to Australia. Koalas often inhabit open eucalypt woodlands, and the leaves of these trees make up most of their diet.

Australia is a major agricultural producer and exporter. Main agricultural products of the country are cattle, wheat, milk, fruits and nuts, vegetables, wool, barley, lamb and sugar cane.

Currency, political system[editovat]

Australian dollar is the currency of Australia and several other independent states. It is subdivided into 100 cents. Australian dollar is the fifth most traded currency in the world. The central bank of Australia is the Reserve Bank of Australia.

Australia is a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state. The head of government is the Prime Minister, who is appointed by the Governor-General. The Prime Minister than chooses other members of the Cabinet, which are also appointed by Governor-General. The Parlament of Australia consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives.

Inhabitants, capitals and important cities[editovat]

Australia has population of 25 million that is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern coast. More than a quarter of Australia's population were born overseas, the five largest immigrant groups were those born in England, New Zealand, China, India, and the Philippines.

The capital city of Australia is Canberra, which is the Australia's eight-largest city. The city is located in the south-east part of the country. The site of Canberra was selected for the location of the nation's capital in 1908 as a compromise between rivals Sydney and Melbourne. It is the seat of the Parliament which is located on Capital Hill.

Some of the most important cities are:

  • Sydney – the most populous city in Australia and Oceania with estimated population of 5 million. It is located on the eastern coast of Australia. One of the most famous landmarks of the city is the Sidney Opera House with its iconic roof resembling the sails of a ship. the city has also hosted 2000 Summer Olympics.
  • Melbourne – the second-most populous city in Australia. It was the host city of the 1956 Summer Olympics.


Australia doesn't have any official language, although English can be considered a national language. Australian English differs slightly from other varieties of English in grammar and spelling. The most common languages after English are Mandarin, Arabic, Cantonese, Vietnamese and Italian.