Life in society

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Friendship, love

  • Friendship – relationship between two people characterized by mutual affection and sympathy. Friends usually have similar interests and hobbies and spend considerable time together. Although there are many forms of friendship, certain characteristics are present in many types of such relationship. These characteristics include affection, kindness, sympathy, empathy, honesty, altruism, loyalty, mutual understanding and compassion, enjoyment of each other's company, trust, and the ability to express one's feeling and make mistakes without fear of judgment from the friend. There is a large body of research linking friendship and health, but the precise reasons for the connection remain unclear. A numbers of theories have attempted to explain this link. These theories have included that good friends encourage their friends to lead more healthy lifestyles; that good friends encourage their friends to seek help when needed; that good friends enhance their friends' coping skills in dealing with illness and other health problems; and that good friends actually affect physiological pathways that are protective of health.
  • Love – a strong interpersonal affection, feeling of strong attraction and emotional attachment. Love is a major facilitator of interpersonal relationships and is one of the most common themes in the creative arts. Love has been postulated to be a function facilitating the continuation of the species. From a biological point of view, love can be seen as a mammalian drive similar to hunger or thirst. Biologists have described a three stages of love – lust, attraction and affection. The first phase is more generic and lasts only a few weeks or months. Attraction is more oriented towards one particular person. Recent studies in neuroscience has shown, that love leads to biosynthesis of several chemicals, including dopamine. These chemicals cause an intense feeling of excitement causing people to consume less food and sleep for a shorter time than usual. This stage normally lasts from one and a half to three years. Since the first two phases are both temporary, a third stage might be described as long-term love.

Racism

Racism is the belief of superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity. The ideology underlying racist practices often includes the idea that humans can be subdivided into distinct groups that are different due to their social behavior and inborn abilities. Historical examples of racism include the Holocaust, the apartheid regime in South Africa, slavery and segregation in the United States, and slavery in Latin America.

Our attitude towards the handicapped, strangers, minorities

  • Handicapped – people suffering from any kind of impairment most often caused by accident or a medical condition. In Czech Republic, three levels of handicap are recognised based on reduction of capacity to work. Disabled people are eligible for a disability pension. Internationally, the rights of people with disabilities are protected by the Convension on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities issued by United Nations and signed by 161 states all around the world. People in developed countries are usually rather sympathetic to handicapped people. However, in developing countries this might not always be the case.
  • Strangers – strangers are people who are not nationals of a given country. Legally, any discrimination of people based on their nationality is prohibited by European Convention on Human Rights (although strangers may still be expelled from the country and their political activities might be limited). Czech people are usually kind to strangers from European, North American and East or Northern Asia countries. However, immigration from Muslim or African countries is sometimes frowned upon and cause disagreement between various groups of population. It is also one of the political themes and resulted in election success of Freedom and Direct Democracy, hard Eurosceptic and anti-immigration political party.
  • Minorities – minority is a group differentiated from the social majority. It includes minor groups of religion, race, language, people with disabilities and LGBT people. Czech Republic is often criticised for discrimination of Romani people. According to a recent opinion poll, 68% Czechs have less or higher antipathy towards Romani and 82% Czechs refuse any form of a "special care of Roma rights". According to a 2010 survey, 83% of Czechs consider Romani asocial and 45% of Czechs would like to expel them out of the Czech Republic.

Criminality, vandalism

  • Criminality – crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. Crime can be seen as an act harmful not only to some individual but also to a community, society or the state. Criminality is higher in densely populated areas, especially in the city centres. However, the precise data regarding criminality in Czech Republic are classified. Criminality data may be used for mathematical, predictive and analytical techniques called predictive policing. These techniques allow insight to police strategists concerning where, and at what times, police patrols should patrol, or maintain a presence, in order to make the best use of resources or to have the greatest chance of preventing future crimes. Some of the most common crimes are:
    • Theft – act of taking another person's property without that person's permission or consent with the intent to keep the stolen item, to sell it or to misuse it otherwise. In Czech Republic, person committing theft can be sentenced to up to 10 years of imprisonment.
      • Robbery – crime of stealing anything of value by force, threat of force, or by putting the victim in fear
      • Burglary – a theft including an unlawful entry into a building or other location.
      • Shoplifting – stealth stealing from a shop
    • Homicide – act of killing another human. A homicide requires only a volitional act by another person that results in death, and thus a homicide may even result from accidental, reckless or negligent acts even if there is no intend to cause harm.
      • Murder – unlawful, intentional killing of another human without justification or valid excuse
      • Manslaughter – intentional killing caused by fear, confusion or other excusable emotion
    • Smuggling – illegal transportation of objects, substances, information or people, most commonly across an international border
    • Arson – crime of intentionally, deliberately and maliciously setting fire to buildings or other property with the intent to cause damage
    • Kidnapping – unlawful carrying away and imprisonment of person against their will. Kidnapping may be done to demand for ransom in exchange for releasing the victim, or for other illegal purposes.
    • Bribery – giving money or other valuables for some kind of influence or action in return, that the recipient would otherwise not alter
  • Vandalism – action involving deliberate destruction of or damage to public or private property. Examples of vandalism include salting lawns, cutting trees without permission, braking windows, arson, spraying paint on others' properties, placing glue into locks, tire slashing, flooding a house by clogging a sink and leaving the water running, and pulling up plants from the roots without permission. Another developing type of vandalism is cybervandalism, which usually involves attacks on community driven projects. For instance, vandalism on Wikipedia includes the addition, removal, or modification of the text or other material that is either humorous, nonsensical, a hoax, or that is an offensive, or otherwise disruptive. Thousands of vandalisms have to be removed from Czech Wikipedia every month which requires constant monitoring of recent changes. Wikpedia software also includes tools helping with fight against vandalism including artificial intelligence, which identifies potentially damaging contributions.

Life style, ethics

  • Lifestyle – lifestyle is the interests, opinions, habits and moral standards of an individual, group, or culture. Lifestyle is greatly influenced by environment, socioeconomic status, education and other factors. People may adopt a particular lifestyle in order to express their individuality or to join a certain group of other people. Example of lifestyle can be a "green lifestyle" characterised by engaging in activities that consume fewer resources and produce less harmful waste.
  • Ethics – branch of philosophy focusing on concepts of right and wrong conduct. Ethics seeks to resolve questions of human morality by defining concepts of good and evil, right and wrong and justice and crime. Some examples of ethics topics include:
    • Animal ethics – branch of ethics focused on treatment of animals. The Parliament of the Czech Republic has recently passed a law forbidding fur farms, which were heavily criticised for unethical treatment of animals. Another controversial topic is animal testing which might be required for development of new medicines.
    • Medical ethics – ethics in area of clinical medicine and in scientific research. One of the most controversial topics of medical ethics is euthanasia, practice of intentionally ending a life to relieve pain and suffering. Euthanasia is currently illegal in Czech republic, but it is practiced in Belgium, Colombia, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Switzerland, and Canada.

Religion, tolerance

  • Religion is a cultural system of designed behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophesies, ethics, or organizations, that claims to relate humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements. Largest religions include:
    • Christianity – monotheistic religion based on the life, teachings, and miracles of Jesus of Nazareth, known as the Christ. It is the world's largest religion, with over 2.4 billion followers, or 33% of the world populations.
    • Islam – monogheistic religion teaching that there is only one God (Allah) and that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion and the fastest-growing major religion in the world, with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the global population.
    • Hinduism – Indian religion and a way of life, widely practiced in the Indian subcontinent. It is considered one of the oldest religions in the world.
    • Buddhism – religion that includes a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha.
  • Tolerance– willingness or ability to accept people with different opinions, attitudes and beliefs. Tolerance is one of the main signs of contemporary society.